N1-methylnicotinamide (1-NMN) has been investigated as an endogenous probe for the renal transporter activity of organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2) and multidrug and toxin extrusion proteins 1 and 2-K (MATE1 and MATE2-K). As pregnancy increased the renal secretion of metformin, a substrate for OCT2, MATE1, and MATE2-K, we hypothesized that the renal secretion of 1-NMN would be similarly affected. Blood and urine samples collected from women prescribed metformin for type 2 diabetes, gestational diabetes, and polycystic ovarian syndrome during early, mid, and late pregnancy (n = 34 visits) and postpartum (n = 14 visits) were analyzed for 1-NMN using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The renal clearance and secretion clearance, using creatinine clearance to correct for glomerular filtration, were estimated for 1-NMN and correlated with metformin renal clearance. 1-NMN renal clearance was higher in both mid (504 ± 293 ml/min, P < 0.01) and late pregnancy (557 ± 305 ml/min, P < 0.01) compared with postpartum (240 ± 106 ml/min). The renal secretion of 1-NMN was 3.5-fold higher in mid pregnancy (269± 267, P < 0.05) and 4.5-fold higher in late pregnancy compared with postpartum (342 ± 283 versus 76 ± 92 ml/min, P < 0.01). Because creatinine is also a substrate of OCT2, MATE1, and MATE2-K, creatinine clearance likely overestimates filtration clearance, whereas the calculated 1-NMN secretion clearance is likely underestimated. Metformin renal clearance and 1-NMN renal clearance were positively correlated (rs = 0.68, P < 0.0001). 1-NMN renal clearance increases during pregnancy due to increased glomerular filtration and net secretion by renal transporters.
- Received October 6, 2016.
- Accepted January 4, 2017.
This work was supported in part by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development [Grant U10HD047892]; NIH National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences through the Clinical and Translational Science Awards Program (CTSA) [Grant UL1TR000423]; and the NIH National Institute of General Medical Sciences [Grant T32GM007750].
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- Copyright © 2017 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics