The absorption, metabolism, and excretion of midostaurin, a potent class III tyrosine protein kinase inhibitor for acute myelogenous leukemia, were evaluated in healthy subjects. A microemulsion formulation was chosen to optimize absorption. After a 50-mg [14C]midostaurin dose, oral absorption was high (>90%) and relatively rapid. In plasma, the major circulating components were midostaurin (22%), CGP52421 (32.7%), and CGP62221 (27.7%). Long plasma half-lives were observed for midostaurin (20.3 hours), CGP52421 (495 hours), and CGP62221 (33.4 hours). Through careful mass-balance study design, the recovery achieved was good (81.6%), despite the long radioactivity half-lives. Most of the radioactive dose was recovered in feces (77.6%) mainly as metabolites, because only 3.43% was unchanged, suggesting mainly hepatic metabolism. Renal elimination was minor (4%). Midostaurin metabolism pathways involved hydroxylation, O-demethylation, amide hydrolysis, and N-demethylation. High plasma CGP52421 and CGP62221 exposures in humans, along with relatively potent cell-based IC50 for FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3-internal tandem duplications inhibition, suggested that the antileukemic activity in AML patients may also be maintained by the metabolites. Very high plasma protein binding (>99%) required equilibrium gel filtration to identify differences between humans and animals. Because midostaurin, CGP52421, and CGP62221 are metabolized mainly by CYP3A4 and are inhibitors/inducers for CYP3A, potential drug-drug interactions with mainly CYP3A4 modulators/CYP3A substrates could be expected. Given its low aqueous solubility, high oral absorption and extensive metabolism (>90%), midostaurin is a Biopharmaceutics Classification System/Biopharmaceutics Drug Disposition Classification System (BDDCS) class II drug in human, consistent with rat BDDCS in vivo data showing high absorption (>90%) and extensive metabolism (>90%).
- Copyright © 2017 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics