Table 1

Examples of significant associations or linkages between selected genes and risk of mycobacterial infectious diseases

Infectious DiseasesGenes Associated or Linked with Specific PhenotypePopulations and References
LeprosyMHC class II
HLA-DR (lepromatous and tuberculoid)Indian (van Eden et al., 1980; Todd et al., 1990; Rani et al., 1993; Zerva et al., 1996; Roy et al., 1997)
Brazilian (Visentainer et al., 1997)
TNFA (lepromatous)Indian (Roy et al., 1997)
NRAMP1
 (leprosy per se)Vietnamese (Abel et al., 1998)
 (in vivo, lepromin response)Vietnamese (Alcaïs et al., 2000)
VDR(lepromatous and tuberculoid)Indian (Roy et al., 1999)
TuberculosisMHC class II
HLA-DR2(pulmonary tuberculosis)Indian (Brahmajothi et al., 1991); Indonesian (Bothamley et al., 1989)
HLA-DRB1(pulmonary tuberculosis)Indian (Ravikumar et al., 1999)
HLA-DQB1 (tuberculosis progression)Cambodian (Goldfeld et al., 1998)
HLA-DQB1 (pulmonary tuberculosis)Indian (Ravikumar et al., 1999)
NRAMP1 (pulmonary tuberculosis)Gambian (Bellamy et al., 1998)
Canadian Indian (Greenwood et al., 2000)
VDR (pulmonary tuberculosis)Gambian (Bellamy et al., 1999); Gujarati (Wilkinson et al., 2000)
MBL
 (pulmonary tuberculosis)Indian (Selvaraj et al., 1999)
 (tuberculous meningitis)Coloured (Hoal-van Helden et al., 1999)
IL-1RA/IL-1b (tuberculosis form)Gujarati (Wilkinson et al., 1999)
Atypical disseminated mycobacterial infections IFNgR1 Maltese (Newport et al., 1996)
Tunisian (Jouanguy et al., 1996),
Italian (Pierre-Audigier et al., 1997)
German, Pakistani, (Altare et al., 1998c)
Portuguese (Jouanguy et al., 1997)
IFNgR2 English (Dorman and Holland, 1998; Altare et al., 1998c)
IL-12Rb1 Moroccan, Turkish, Dutch, Cypriot (Altare et al., 1998a,b; de Jong et al., 1998)
IL-12p40 Pakistani (Altare et al., 1998d)