TABLE 4

Route-dependent intestinal metabolism


Drugs

Route of Administration

References
Intraduodenal
Systemic
Acetaminophen Glucuronide/Sulfate ND Pang et al., 1986
Enalapril Enalaprilat ND Pang et al., 1985
Cyclosporin + ND Ducharme et al., 1995
Tacrolimus + ND Lampen et al., 1995
Midazolam 1-Hydroxymidazolam less Paine et al., 1996; Thummel et al., 1996
(—)Aminocarbovir (—)Carbovir less Wen et al., 1999
Morphine
Morphine 3β-D-glucuronide
ND
Doherty et al., 2000