List of herbal extracts screened for UGT1A4, UGT1A6, and UGT1A9 inhibition

Test CompoundScientific Name of Origin% Key Components (w/w)aSolventb
Black cohosh rhizome extractCimicifuga racemosa≥5% Total triterpenglycosides50% Ethanol
Cranberry press juiceVaccinium marocarpon>40% Total proanthocyanidins96% Ethanol
Echinacea root extractEchinacea purpurea3% Cichoric acid60% Ethanol
Garlic bulb extractAllium sativum≥3.25% Allin80% Methanol
Ginkgo biloba leaf extractGinkgo biloba≥24% Ginkgo flavonglycosides60% Acetone
≥6% Terpene lactones
Ginseng root extractPanax ginseng≥5% Total ginsenosides60% Ethanol
Milk thistle herb extractSilybum marianum37.9% Total silymarin flavonolignans80% Acetone
Saw palmetto fruit extractSerenoa repens>85% Total fatty acids96% Ethanol
>0.1% Sterols
Valerian root extractValeriana officinalis≥0.1% Valerenic acids70% Ethanol
EGCGCamellia sinensis>97% EGCG100% Methanol
  • a Values provided by manufacturer.

  • b Used by manufacturer for standardization.