Drug | Species/Population | Absorption Model | Absorption Parameters | Between Subject Variability for Absorption Parameters, CV% | Covariates for Absorption Parameters | Reference |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Anakinra | Rats | Sequential zero- and first-order | Fraction of zero-order | Yes for k_{a} | No | Liu et al., 2011 |

Duration of zero-order | ||||||

k_{a} | ||||||

Darbepoetin alfa | Anemic patients with chronic kidney disease | Zero-order input into the depot compartment followed by the first-order absorption | F | Yes | No | Doshi et al., 2010 |

Duration of input | ||||||

k_{a} | ||||||

Darbepoetin alfa | Healthy humans | First-order | k_{a} | Yes for k_{a} | F linear function of the dose | Agoram et al., 2007 |

k_{a} ∝ (Age/50)^{−0.951} | ||||||

Erythropoietin δ | Pediatric patients with chronic kidney disease | First-order | F | No | No | Knebel et al., 2008 |

k_{a} | ||||||

Erythropoietin | Healthy humans (meta-analysis) | (1) Zero-order input into the depot compartment followed by the first-order absorption | F-hyperbolic function of the dose; | Yes for k_{a}, D1, Tlag, fraction of (1) | k_{a} decreased with age and body weight; | Olsson-Gisleskog et al., 2007 |

(2) Zero-order after a lag time^{a} | Fraction of (1), dose dependent; | k_{a} lower in females | ||||

For (1): k_{a}, Duration of zero-order (D1) | F increased with increase in hemoglobin; | |||||

For (2): Duration of zero-order (D2), T_{lag} | F decreased with body weight | |||||

Filgrastim | Healthy adults | Parallel zero- and first-order followed by first-order | F | No | No | Wiczling et al., 2009 |

Fraction of zero-order | ||||||

Duration of zero-order | ||||||

k_{a} | ||||||

Filgrastim | Healthy adults | First-order | F | No | No | Krzyzanski et al., 2010 |

k_{a} | ||||||

Growth hormone | Healthy humans and dialysis patients | Michaelis-Menten | V_{max} | No | K_{m} population specific | Klitgaard et al., 2009 |

K_{m} | ||||||

Insulin | Healthy humans | First-order with a transit compartment | F | Yes | k_{a} ∝ BMI | Potocka et al., 2011 |

k_{a1} | ||||||

k_{a2} | ||||||

Insulin | Rats | Parallel zero- and first-order | Fraction of zero-order | No | No | Gopalakrishnan et al., 2005 |

Duration of zero-order | ||||||

T_{lag} for zero-order | ||||||

k_{a} | ||||||

F - dose-dependent function | ||||||

IFN-α2b | Human hepatitis C patients | Sequential zero- and first-order | Fraction of zero-order | Yes | No | Chatelut et al., 1999 |

Duration of zero-order | ||||||

k_{a} | ||||||

Leukemia inhibitory factor | Healthy postmenopausal women and infertile patients | Zero-order | Duration of zero-order | No | No | Goggin et al., 2004 |

Low molecular weight heparin | Healthy humans | Parallel zero- and first-order followed by first-order | Fraction of zero-order | Yes for k_{a} and fraction of zero-order | No | Abe et al., 2013 |

Duration of zero-order | ||||||

T_{lag} for zero-order | ||||||

k_{a} | ||||||

Pegylated human erythropoietin | Rats, dogs, and monkeys | First-order | F | Yes for k_{a}, F | k_{a} ∝ BW^{−0.149} | Jolling et al., 2005 |

k_{a} | T_{lag} ∝ BW^{−1.810} | |||||

T_{lag} | F – species specific | |||||

Peginesatide | Chronic kidney disease patients | First-order | F | Yes | k_{a} ∝ BMI, creatinine, ethnicity, dialysis status | Naik et al., 2013 |

k_{a} |

BMI, body mass index.

↵

^{a}The estimated parameters values allowed for two processes to occur simultaneously (D1 = 0.725 h, D2 = 37.8 h,*T*_{lag}= 2.72 h) (Olsson-Gisleskog et al., 2007).