TABLE 1

Chemicals biotransformed by intestinal microbiome

Other

Bacterial BiotransformationChemicalsChemical Applications
AzoreductionProntosilAntibacterial
NeoprontosilAntibacterial
SulfasalazineAntibacterial
BalsalazideAnti-inflammatory
OlsalazineAnti-inflammatory
ReductionNitrazepamAntianxiety
ClonazepamAntianxiety
MisonidazoleRadiation sensitizer
OmeprazoleAntiheartburn and antiulcer
SulfinpyrazoneUricosuric
SulindacAnti-inflammatory
DigoxinAntifibrillation
ZonisamideAnticonvulsant
MetronidazoleAntibacterial
HydrolysisLactuloseAnticonstipation
SorivudineAntiviral
Succinate group removalSuccinylsulfathiazoleAntibacterial
DehydroxylationLevo-dopaAnti-Parkinsons
Acetylation5-Aminosalicylic acidAnti-inflammatory
DeacetylationPhenacetinAnalgesic and antipyretic
N-oxide bond bond cleavageRanitidineAntiheartburn and antiulcer
NizatidineAntiheartburn and antiulcer
ProteolysisInsulinDecrease blood glucose
CalcitoninDecrease blood calcium
DenitrationGlyceryl trinitrateAntiangena
Isosorbide dinitrateAntiangena
Amine formation and hydrolysis of amide bondChloramphenicolAntibiotic
DeconjugationDigitoxinAntifibrillation
IndomethacinAnti-inflammatory
Estrogens
Bile acids
Thiazole ring openingLevamisoleAnthelmic
Isoxazole scissionRisperidoneAntipsychotic
DeglycosylationQuercetin-3-glucosideNatural product
N-demethylationMethamphetamineCNS stimulant
Other chemical reactionsAzetirelinIncreases thyrotropin
Potassium oxonatePart of antitumor drug
FlucytosineAntifungal
HesperidinNatural product
DaidzeinNatural product
  • Based on Sousa et al., 2008