TABLE 2

Multispecies MPCC formation of species-specific in vivo metabolites

MetaboliteMPCC Formation of Human-Specific In Vivo Metabolites
HumanMonkeyDogRat
N-Desethyl sunitinib (1a)Yes (expected)Yes (expected)Yes (expected)Yes (expected)
Trovafloxacin glucuronide (2a)Yes (expected)Yes (n.d.)Yes (expected)Yes (expected)
4-Oxo-carbazeran (3a)Yes (expected)Yes (n.d.)No (expected)No (n.d.)
2-Oxo-zoniporide (4a)Yes (expected)Yes (n.d.)Yes (unexpected)aYes (expected)
4-Hydroxytolbutamide (5a)Yes (expected)Yes (n.d.)No (expected)Yes (n.d.)
N-Acetylprocainamide (6a)Yes (expected)Yes (n.d.)Yes (unexpected)bYes (expected)
Trifluoperazine-N-glucuronide (7a)Yes (n.d.)cYes (n.d.)No (n.d.)No (expected)
  • n.d., not determined.

  • a Not formed by AO (cytochrome P450-mediated in dog).

  • b Formed in fibroblast control, not dog-related.

  • c Known substrate for UGT1A4 in vitro [Xiao et al. (2014)].