Summary of DPGs that are differentially regulated in response to gut microbiota modifiers

Gut Microbiota ModifiersUpregulated Drug-Metabolizing EnzymesDownregulated Drug-Metabolizing Enzymes
VSL3 (as compared with control groups of the same mouse model)Phase I: Cyp4v3 (4.26-fold), Adh1 (2.23-fold), Ces2a (2.07-fold)Phase I: Cyp3a44 (67.42%), Cyp3a11 (59.88%)
Phase II: none observedPhase II: Gstm1 (65.50%), Gstm2 (49.86%), Gstm3 (61.58%), Gsto1 (63.62%), Ugt1a9a (54.41%), Ugt2a3a (52.24%)
Germ free (as compared with control CV mice)Phase I: Cyp4a cluster (Cyp4a14 [9.84-fold], 4a10 [53.34-fold], 4a31 [5.86-fold], 4a32 [6.06-fold], 4a12a/b [2.20-fold]), Cyp4f17 (1.86-fold), Cyp4f14 (5.30-fold), Cyp4f18 (19.83-fold), Cyp4v3 (2.88-fold), Cyp1a2 (1.64-fold), Aldh1a1 (2.03-fold), Aldh3a1 (3.08-fold), Aldh3a2 (2.03-fold)Phase I: Cyp3a cluster (Cyp3a41a/b [16.18%], 3a44 [11.33%], 3a11 [10.69%], 3a25/59 [32.44%]), Aldh1b1 (41.30%), Fmo5 (54.43%)
Phase II: Ugt1a9 (1.68-fold), Ugt2b1 (1.83-fold)Phase II: Gstpi (57.71%), Gstm1 (53.15%), Gstm2 (29.70%), Gstm3 (34.28%), Gsto1 (49.36%), Sult5a1 (36.39%)
Conventionalization (as compared with control GF mice)Phase I: Cyp3a cluster (Cyp3a41a/b [6.38-fold], 3a44 [1.60-fold], 3a11 [7.56-fold], 3a25/59, 3a16 [7.12-fold]), Cyp4f17 (1.47-fold), Ces2a (1.86-fold)Phase I: Cyp4a cluster (Cyp4a14 [0.98%], 4a10 [6.51%], 4a31 [11.42%], 4a32 [7.43%], 4a12a/b [59.22%]), Aldh3a2 [20.17%], Ces1e/1g [42.60%], Akr1d1 (39.02%)
Phase II: Gstpi (2.01-fold), Ugt2a36/37/38 (6.01-fold), Sult5a1 (2.88-fold)Phase II: Ugt1a9 (53.19%)
  • a *Differentially regulated in GF livers.