Summary quantitation of different bile acids (BAs) in human serum, urine, liver tissue, cecum, bile, and feces

BAMean % Total BA
 (n = 39)aUrine
 (n = 39)aLiver Tissue
 (n = 8)bGallbladder Bile
(n = 14)cCaecal Contents
(n = 15)dStool
 (n = 19)a
LCA≤ 0.5≤ 0.5≤ 0.5≤ 0.517.532.1
G-LCA≤ 0.5≤ 0.51.5≤ 0.5≤ 0.5≤ 0.5
T-LCA≤ 0.5≤ 0.50.9≤ 0.5≤ 0.5≤ 0.5
DCA11.22.2≤ 0.5≤ 0.529.560.6
G-DCA11.8≤ 0.517.510.3≤ 0.50.61
T-DCA2.2≤≤ 0.5≤0.5
CDCA8.2g≤ 0.5≤ 0.5≤ 0.520.11.73
G-CDCA32.6≤ 0.533.1261.30.70
T-CDCA3.9≤ 0.517.5131.3≤ 0.5
CA7.8g14.6≤ 0.5≤ 0.514.81.41
UDCA2.7≤ 0.5≤ 0.5≤
T-UDCA≤ 0.5≤ 0.5≤ 0.50.7≤0.5≤0.5
LCA-3S≤ 0.5≤ 0.5-f1.4≤0.5
CA-3S≤ 0.5≤ 0.5≤0.5≤0.5
UDCA-3S≤ 0.52.9≤0.5≤0.5
T-UDCA-3S≤ 0.56.3≤0.5≤0.5
T-LCA-3S2.512.7≤ 0.5≤0.5≤0.5
G-LCA-3S3.521.8≤ 0.5≤0.5≤0.5
  • CA, cholic acid; CA-3S, cholic acid 3-O-sulfate; CDCA, chenodeoxycholic acid; CDCA-3S, chenodeoxycholic acid 3-O-sulfate; DCA, deoxycholic acid; DCA-3S, deoxycholic acid 3-O-sulfate; G-LCA, glycolithocholic acid; G-LCA-3S, glycolithocholic acid 3-O-sulfate; LCA, lithocholic acid; LCA-3S, lithocholic acid 3-O-sulfate; T-LCA, taurolithocholic acid; G-UDCA, glycoursodeoxycholic acid; T-UDCA, tauroursodeoxycholic acid; UDCA, ursodeoxycholic acid; G-DCA, glycodeoxycholic acid; T-DCA, taurodeoxycholic acid; G-CDCA, glycochenodeoxycholic acid; T-CDCA, taurochenodeoxycholic acid; G-CA, glycocholic acid; T-CA, taurocholic acid; T-UDCA-3S, tauroursodeoxycholic acid 3-O-sulfate; G-UDCA-3S, glycoursodeoxycholic acid 3-O-sulfate; UDCA-3S, ursodeoxycholic acid 3-O-sulfate; T-LCA-3S, taurolithocholic acid 3-O-sulfate; LCA-3S, lithocholic acid 3-O-sulfate.

  • a Data reported by Humbert et al. (2012) as nM, but calculated and presented as mean % of total BA. Low levels of amidated and sulfated BAs, as well as the high levels of LCA and DCA (93% of total BA), in the stool is the result of metabolism by enterobacteria. Approximately 75% and 8% of the BA pool in the urine and serum represents 3-O-sulfated BAs, respectively. It should be noted that Takikawa et al. (1985) have reported the presence of both BA glucuronide and sulfate conjugates in human serum and urine.

  • b Data reported as fmol/mg tissue (Garcia-Canaveras et al., 2012), but calculated and presented as mean % of total BA in the table above. Note high levels of amino acid conjugated BAs in liver tissue (>99% of total BA).

  • c Rossi et al., 1987 (gallbladder bile samples of healthy subjects). The authors do not report the levels of amidated or non-amidated CDCA, DCA, and CA 3-O-sulfate or 3-O-glucuronide conjugates. However, Takikawa et al. (1985) have reported that the levels of sulfated or glucuronidated BAs in human bile are low (<1% total BA).

  • d Hamilton et al., 2007 (authors reported % total BA, but only mean data are shown). It is assumed that the low level of amidated and sulfated BAs, as well as the high levels of LCA, DCA, and CDCA (∼70% of total BA), in cecum is the result of metabolism by enterobacteria.

  • e Nonsulfated BAs are ranked in terms of decreasing hydrophobicity index (see Table 2).

  • f Not reported.

  • g Trottier et al. (2013) report that 38% of serum CDCA is in the form of 3-O-glucuronide (amidated vs. nonamidated not specified). The same authors report that about 14% of serum CA is in the form of an acyl glucuronide (nonamidated).