TABLE 1

List of drug-metabolizing enzymes commonly associated with biotransformation of drugs and xenobiotics in the kidney (Lash, 1994; Lock and Reed, 1998; Lohr et al., 1998; Knights et al., 2013)

Phase 1 EnzymesConjugating EnzymesHydrolytic and Other Metabolizing Enzymes
Cytochrome P450a CYP2B6, CYP3A5, CYP4A11, CYP4F2, CYP4F8, CYP4F11, CYP4F12UDP-Glucuronocyltransferasesb UGT1A5, UGT1A6, UGT1A7, UGT1A9, UGT2B7Epoxide hydrolase
Microsomal flavin adenine dinucleotide-containing monooxygenaseN-acetyl transferaseCatalase
Alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenaseN-methyl transferaseNADPH-quinone oxidoreductase
Prostaglandin synthetaseGlutathione S-transferaseSuperoxide dismutase
Monoamine oxidaseGlutathione disulfide reductase
Steroid 21 hydroxylaseSulfotransferasesEsterases, carboxyesterases
Thiol S-methyl transferase
Cysteine conjugate β-lyase
Glutathione peroxidase
Glutamyl transferase, cysteinylglycinase
  • a Major P450 enzymes identified in the kidney.

  • b UGT enzymes expressed in human kidney.