TABLE 5

Urine concentrations (nanograms per milliliter) of tramadol, M1, M2, and M5 and their respective conjugates measured 4 hours after oral administration of tramadol (5 mg/kg b.wt.) to 10 dogs (twice), and after pretreatment with fluconazole and placebo separated by a 2-week washout period

Conjugate concentrations are given as mass equivalents of the respective parent (unconjugated) compound. The data are presented as the median and the 25%–75% interquartile range of concentrations, and as the GMR and 90% confidence interval. The P value indicates the significance of paired comparisons between fluconazole and placebo treatments using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test.

AnalyteUrine Concentration (ng/ml)Urine Concentration Ratio
PlaceboFluconazole(Fluconazole/Placebo)
Median25%–75%Median25%–75%P ValueGMR90% CI
T144(11–498)1528(881–8856)0.002*36(10–127)
T conj.0.0(0.0–71)0.0(0.0–8.2)0.310.87(0.19–3.9)
M134(11–102)728(328–2135)0.002*34(12–94)
M1 conj.473(126–1330)2048(895–6013)0.01*6.4(2.2–18.9)
M21284(522–3570)59(8.2–437)0.01*0.034(0.011–0.11)
M2 conj.218(0.0–717)15(6.3–39)0.130.40(0.055–2.9)
M52968(1872–3802)224(81–758)0.006*0.076(0.026–0.22)
M5 conj.4227(859–10,186)372(168–3299)0.320.28(0.056–1.4)
  • CI, confidence interval; conj., conjugate; T, tramadol.

  • * A P value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant.