Gastrointestinal pH, emptying, transit time, and length in human term neonate compared with juvenile rat and pig

Data are representative of original study reports. Because of variability in study populations, measurement techniques, and reporting, ranges of observed values or ranges of means are provided. Healthy Term Neonate data replicated from Table 1.

Human Term Neonate (GW 37+)Juvenile Rat (Preweaning)Juvenile Pig (Preweaning)
 Fasted2.0–6.1 (Mason, 1962; Fredrikzon and Hernell, 1977)PND <15: 6.5aGöttingen minipig
PND 15–21: decline to 4 (Ikezaki and Johnson, 1983)aPND 1–7: 4.3–5.3 (Van Peer et al., 2016)a
White X Landrace
PND 26: 1.46–1.58 (Moughan et al., 1991)
 Fed5.2–7.5 (Mason, 1962; Fredrikzon and Hernell, 1977)PND 9–18: 5.1 (Rodewald, 1976)aWhite X Landrace
PND 26: 5.04–5.31 (Moughan et al., 1991)
 Small intestine5.8–7.0 (duodenum, fed) (Barbero et al., 1952)PND 9–18: 6.2a (duodenum), 6.3a (jejunum), 6.9 (ileum) (Rodewald, 1976)Göttingen minipig
PND 1–7: 5.8–6.5a (duodenum), 6.0–6.5a (jejunum), 6.0–7.3a (ileum) (Van Peer et al., 2016)
 Large intestine7–8.2 (cecum, fed) (Barbero et al., 1952)PND 9–18: 7.4 (Rodewald, 1976)aGöttingen minipig
PND 1–7: 6.0–7.5 (Van Peer et al., 2016)a
Gastric emptying (t1/2)
 Water or aqueous6.9 min (Lange et al., 1997)bPND 1–2: ∼50 min (Heller, 1963)cNA
 Maternal milk or colostrumd48 ± 15 min (Cavell, 1981)ePND 10: 55 min (Tooley et al., 2009)cDanish Landrace X Danish Yorkshire X Duroc
PND 0: 20 min (Amdi et al., 2016)c
 Milk formula78 ± 14 min (Cavell, 1981)ePND 10: 75 min (Tooley et al., 2009)c,fWhite X Landrace
PND 26: 90–101 min (Moughan et al., 1991)g
Intestinal transit time
 OCT1.2–2.0 h (Vreugdenhil et al., 1986)NDND
Intestinal length
 Small intestine143–157 cm (Struijs et al., 2009)PND 14–15: 39aLandrace
PND 21–22: 55a (Ghishan et al., 1980)PND 0: 334a
PND 3: 481 (Wang and Xu, 1996)a
Göttingen minipig
PND 1–7: 219–318 (Van Peer et al., 2016)a
White X Landrace
PND 0: 359 cma
PND 1–7: 426–575 cm (Buddington et al., 2001)a
 Large intestine (cecum plus colon, unless where indicated)33–40 cm (Struijs et al., 2009)iPND 14–15: 4.9 ± 0.2 cmLandrace
PND 21–22: 7.5 ± 0.2 cm (Ghishan et al., 1980)PND 0: 72.6a
PND 3: 87.5 (Wang and Xu, 1996)a
Göttingen minipig
PND 1–7: 43.4–71.3 cm (Van Peer et al., 2016)a
  • ND, No data.

  • a Reported means.

  • b Median.

  • c Estimated from graphical representation of means; range not reported.

  • d Species specific.

  • e Reported mean and error (Cavell, 1981).

  • f Rat milk replacer formula (Wombaroo Food Products, Glen Osmond, South Australia, Australia).

  • g Simulated human infant formulae (cow’s milk, hydrolyzed cow’s milk, and soy based).

  • h Reference value reported in ICRP (2002).

  • i Colon length only.