TABLE 3

A comparison of the fold-changes (R) in pharmacokinetic parameters of CYP2C8 substrates (given in single doses) caused by gemfibrozil and clopidogrel in the present study and previous publications

Data are either arithmetic or geometric mean ratios with 90% or 95% confidence intervals (CI), or ranges.

Victim Drug 
and Its DoseClopidogrel 300 mg followed by 75 mg QD Ratio (R) to Placebo (90% or 95% CI, or range)Gemfibrozil 600 mg BID Ratio (R) to Placebo (90% or 95% CI, or Range)
AUC0–∞RCmaxRReferenceAUC0–∞RCmaxRReference
Dasabuvir
 250 mg4.7 (90% CI = 3.2–6.7)1.6 (90% CI = 1.0–2.6)Itkonen et al. (2019)11.3 (90% CI = 9.1–14)2.0 (90% CI = 1.7–2.4)Menon et al. (2015)
Desloratadine
 5 mg2.8 (90% CI = 2.3–3.4)1.7 (90% CI = 1.3–2.0)Present study4.6 (90% CI = 3.5–6.2)1.7 (90% CI = 1.4–2.2)Present study
Montelukast
 10 mg2.0 (90% CI = 1.7–2.3)1.0 (90% CI = 0.8–1.2)Itkonen et al. (2018)4.4 (95% CI = 3.8–5.0)1.5 (95% CI = 1.3–1.8)Karonen et al. (2010)
4.3 (95% CI = 2.9–6.3)1.5 (95% CI = 0.9–2.3)Karonen et al.(2012)
Pioglitazone
 1 mg2.0 (95% CI = 1.6–2.5)aNot reportedKim et al. (2016)
 15 mg2.1 (90% CI = 1.8–2.6)1.0 (90% CI = 0.8–1.4)Itkonen et al. (2016)3.2 (Range = 2.3–6.5)1.1 (Range = 0.5–2.6)Jaakkola et al. (2005)
 30 mg3.4 (Range = 2.3–6.2)Not reportedDeng et al.(2005)
Repaglinide
 0.1 mg3.1 (95% CI = 2.1–4.1)bNot reportedKim et al. (2016)
 0.25 mg5.1 (90% CI = 3.9–6.6)2.5 (90% CI = 1.8–3.5)Tornio et al. (2014)8.1 (Range = 5.5–15)2.4 (Range = 1.7–6.1)Niemi et al. (2003)
3.9 (90% CI = 2.9–5.3)c2.0 (90% CI = 1.3–3.1)cTornio et al. (2014)7.0 (Range = 2.9–14)2.2 (Range = 1.4–2.9)Tornio et al. (2008)
7.6 (Range = 4.2–12)2.7 (Range = 1.5–3.7)Backman et al. (2009)
7.0 (90% CI = 6.0–8.1)2.0 (90% CI = 1.6–2.5)Honkalammi et al. (2012)
  • AUC0–8h, area under the plasma concentration –time curve from 0 to 8 hours; AUC0–24h, area under the plasma concentration–time curve from 0 to 24 hours; AUC0–∞, area under the plasma concentration–time curve from time 0 to infinity.

  • a AUC0–24 h ratio.

  • b AUC0–8 h ratio.

  • c Effect on day 3 of treatment with clopidogrel 300 mg on day 1 followed by 75 mg QD.