TABLE 1

Pharmacokinetics of atenolol after oral administration to rats

Atenolol (1 mg/kg, 0.25 mg/ml) was orally administered with purified water, apple juice or hyperosmotic mannitol solution. The statistical significance of differences between the different conditions was evaluated using one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey’s multiple comparison test.

Water (control)Apple juiceHyperosmotic mannitol solutionb
Measurea(n = 6)(n = 6)(n = 6)
AUC0–9(ng·h/ml)278 ± 34††176 ± 41**73.4 ± 13.0**,††
AUC0–∞(ng·h/ml)307 ± 40††203 ± 43**81.9 ± 32.0**,††
Cmax(ng/ml)72.3 ± 7.2††43.4 ± 11.4**17.7 ± 3.6**,††
tmax(h)2.83 ± 0.752.42 ± 0.661.92 ± 0.66
t1/2(h)2.52 ± 0.352.80 ± 0.352.58 ± 0.46
  • a AUC, area under plasma concentration-time curve; Cmax, maximum plasma concentration; tmax, time to reach maximum plasma concentration; t1/2, elimination half-life.

  • b Hyperosmotic mannitol solution was adjusted to the same osmolality as AJ.

  • * P < 0.05; **P < 0.01, significantly different from control values.

  • P < 0.05; ††P < 0.01, significantly different from values with AJ. Data are shown as means ± S.D. (n = 6).