TABLE 6

Preliminary hepatic P450-mediated goldenseal-drug interaction predictions

R2, ratio of intrinsic clearance values for a probe drug in the absence to presence of an interacting time-dependent P450 inhibitor (predicted using a basic static model; U.S. Food and Drug Administration, 2020).

InhibitorR2 Value
CYP2C9CYP2D6CYP3A4
Berberine1.007.901.26
(−)-β-Hydrastine8.94∼417.8