TABLE 3

Genes and their respective proteins and selected attributes evaluated in this study

GeneProteinSelected AttributesReference
ALBAlbuminThe most abundant plasma protein responsible for the maintenance of plasma oncotic pressure. Plays a key role in the bioavailability and distribution of metal ions, fatty acids, steroid hormones, and pharmaceutical drugs.(Ascoli et al., 2006; Bal et al., 2013; Fujiwara and Amisaki, 2013; Lee and Wu, 2015; Zorzi et al., 2019)
TFTransferrinTransferrin binds and transfers iron to cells for the synthesis of iron-containing proteins (e.g., hemoglobin synthesis during erythropoiesis) via the transferrin receptor on the plasma membrane.(Lok and Loh, 1998)
TTRTransthyretinTransthyretin has high affinity for thyroxine and retinol and recently has been found bind amyloid-β protein and may have a protective role in the onset of Alzheimer disease.(Buxbaum et al., 2008; Alemi et al., 2016)
ASGR1Asialoglycoprotein receptor 1Transmembrane protein mediating the endocytosis and lysosomal degradation of glycoproteins. Target of drug/siRNA therapeutic delivery into hepatocytes.(Tanowitz et al., 2017; Yang et al., 2021)
HPRT1Hypoxanthine ribosyl transferaseEnzyme present in all tissues catalyzing purine salvage pathway in the formation of hypoxanthine to inosine monophosphate and guanine to guanosine monophosphate.(Agrahari et al., 2019)
GAPDHGlyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenaseHousekeeping enzyme for oxidative phosphorylation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate.(Colell et al., 2009)
CYP1A2Cytochrome P450 isoform 1A2Aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligand inducible P450 isoform responsible for caffeine metabolism and the oxidation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to toxic/carcinogenic metabolites.(Koonrungsesomboon et al., 2018)
CYP2B6Cytochrome P450 isoform 2B6Constitutive androstanol receptor ligand inducible P450 isoform.(Wang and Tompkins, 2008)
CYP2C8Cytochrome P450 isoform 2C8Inducible isoform responsible for the fatal interaction between its substrate, cerivastatin, and its inhibitor, gemfibrozil.(Backman et al., 2016)
CYP2C9Cytochrome P450 isoform 2C9Most abundant CYP2C isoform with large interindividual differences resulting from genetic polymorphism and induction/inhibition by coadministered drugs.(Daly et al., 2017)
CYP2C19Cytochrome P450 isoform 2C19Inducible polymorphic CYP2C isoform responsible for clopidogrel metabolism.(Brown and Pereira, 2018)
CYP2D6Cytochrome P450 isoform 2D6A noninducible polymorphic P450 isoform largely responsible for psychiatric drugs with its inhibition resulting in clinically significant drug-drug interactions.(Taylor et al., 2020)
CYP3A4Cytochrome P450 isoform 3A4The most abundant P450 isoform inducible by PXR ligands. CYP3A4 is responsible for the metabolism of 50% of marketed drug and target enzyme of drug-drug interaction by inhibitors and inducers.(Li et al., 1995; Klein and Zanger, 2013)
CYP3A7Cytochrome P450 isoform 3A7CYP3A isoform mainly expressed in human fetal liver but also in some adult populations.(Kamataki et al., 1995; Greuet et al., 1996; Okuyama et al., 2020)
SLC10A1Sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptideUptake transporter responsible for bile acids uptake from plasma into hepatocytes.(Slijepcevic and van de Graaf, 2017)
SLC22A1Organic cation transporter 1Key transporter for drug (e.g., metformin) uptake into hepatocytes.(Sam et al., 2017)
SLC22A7Organic anion transporter 2Hepatic uptake transporter recently reported to have a potential role in individual variations in tolbutamide and warfarin metabolism.(Bi et al., 2018a; Bi et al., 2018b)
SLCO1B1Organic anion transporter 1B1Sinusoidal transporter together with SLCO1B3 are responsible for drug (e.g., statins) uptake into hepatocytes.(Kunze et al., 2014)
SLCO1B3Organic anion transporter 1B3Sinusoidal transporter together with SLCO1B1 are responsible for drug (e.g., statins) uptake into hepatocytes.(Kunze et al., 2014)
SLCO2B1Organic anion transporter 2B1Polymorphic drug uptake transporter (e.g., montelukast).(Kim et al., 2013)
ABCB1P-glycoprotein 1 (multidrug resistance protein 1)Inducible efflux transporter with numerous drug substrates with diverse structures considered the most important efflux transporter contributed to transporter-mediated drug interactions.(Schuetz et al., 1995)
ABCB11Bile salt export pumpMajor transporter responsible for the secretion of bile acids from hepatocytes into bile with a potential correlation between its inhibition and drug induced liver injuries.(Kenna et al., 2018)
ABCC2Multidrug resistance protein 2Apical efflux transporter in hepatocytes with a variety of amphiphilic anions that belong to different classes of molecules with its mutations resulting in hyperbilirubinemia (Dubin-Johnson syndrome).(Jemnitz et al., 2010)
ABCC3Multidrug resistance protein 3Efflux of toxic organic anion conjugates, including bile salts with expression upregulated in cholestasis.(Chai et al., 2012)
ABCC4Multidrug resistance protein 4Efflux of endogenous and xenobiotic organic anionic compounds as well as cyclic nucleotides, eicosanoids, urate, and conjugated steroids.(Russel et al., 2008)
ABCG2Breast cancer resistance proteinEfflux hepatic transporter initially identified in multidrug resistant breast cancer cell lines with a variety of anticancer drugs as substrates.(Heyes et al., 2018)