TABLE 2

Comparison on major EV isolation strategies

Commercial ProductsClassificationMajor EV Type by SizeMajor Plasma ContaminantsStrengthsWeaknessesSuitable Marker Types
35 nm Size exclusion chromatographyqEV35 (IZON Bioscience)Intermediate recovery, intermediate specificitysEV <110nmLipoprotein complexesNo expensive equipment
Medium/High throughput
High reproducibility
Broad sample volume range
High EV protein content
High elution volumemRNA
miRNA
protein
70 nm Size exclusion chromatographyqEV70 (IZON Bioscience)Intermediate recovery, intermediate specificitysEV and MV >110nmMatrix “free” proteinsmRNA
miRNA
protein
Membrane affinity chromatographyExoEasy (Qiagen)Low recovery, intermediate specificitysEV 100–150nmMedium/high throughput
High reproducibility
High abundance mRNA
miRNA
Resin precipitationExoQuick (Systembio)Low specificity, high recoveryNonselectivePrecipitant, matrix proteins, and cell debrisNo expensive equipment
High throughput
Non-EV contamination
Low reproducibility
Low content of EV proteins
mRNA
miRNA
UltracentrifugationLow specificity, high recoveryNonselectiveMatrix protein and cell debrisCost
Moderate throughput
Expensive equipment
Non-EV contamination
Low throughput/reproducibility
EV damage
miRNA
High abundance protein
Density gradient ultracentrifugationHigh specificity, low recoverysEV (50–150nm) and MVs (100–1000nm) in separate fractionsMinimalEV separation by density
Low non-EV contamination
Expensive equipment
Low throughput
Loss of sample
mRNA

miRNA

High abundance protein