TABLE 1

Overview of the main imaging techniques used for diagnosing NAFLD and NASH

ApproachesApplicationsLimitations
CAPStiffness and steatosis simultaneously measured based on VCTE.High rates of missed or wrong diagnosis in the patients with a high stage of steatosis and obesity.
CTSteatosis by measurement of attenuation, which is correlated with the degree of intrahepatic fat accumulation.Radiations.
MRSteatosis by signal intensity differences on opposed-phase or fat saturation.Price and equipment.
MR-PDFFSteatosis by dividing all protons in the liver using MRI-visible protons bound to fat.Price and equipment.
MREStiffness based on shear wave propagation using MR modality.Price and equipment.
USSteatosis based on appearance of hepatomegaly with hyperechogenic hepatic tissues, vascular blurring, and deep attenuation.Accuracy may be affected by the presence of severe fibrosis or morbid obesity or in individuals with mild steatosis.
VCTEStiffness by quantifying the speed of shear wave emitted by a vibrator in the intercostal space and followed by US.Detection limited to a local scale of the tissue.