SLC1 and SLC7: two amino acid solute carrier transporter families related to inflammation and autoimmunity

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Human Gene NameProtein NameAliasesSubstratesTransport Type/ Coupling IonsTissue Distribution and Cellular/Subcellular ExpressionRelevant Molecular MechanismsSequence Accession ID
SLC1A1EAAC1, EAAC3System X-AGGlutamate, asparagineC/Na+, H+, and k+Brain (neurons), lung, colorectal, kidney, liver, heart, placentaIFN-β production: NF-κB pathwayNM_004170
SLC1A2GLT1, EAAT2System X-AGGlutamate, asparagineC/Na+, H+, and k+Brain (astrocytes, bergmann glia, neurons), liver, pancreasAkt/mTORC pathway: NF-κB pathwayNM_004171 NM_001195728 NM_001252652
SLC1A3GLAST, EAAT1System X-AGGlutamate, asparagineC/Na+, H+, and k+Brain (astrocytes, bergmann glia), heart, skeletal muscle, placentaNF-κB; IGF-1; TLR-3; IFN-βNM_004172 NM_001166695 NM_001166696
SLC1A4ASCT1, SATTSystem ASCCystine, serine, L-ThreonineC/Na+, E/amino acidsWidespreadiNOSNM_003038 NM_001193493
SLC1A5ASCT2, AAATSystem ASCAsparagine, glutamineC/Na+, E/amino acidsAdipose tissue, lung, skeletal muscle, large intestine, kidney, testisLck phosphorylation; TCR signaling; NKG2D; IFN-γ production and degranulationNM_005638 NM_001145144 NM_001145145
SLC7A1CAT-1System y+Arginine, lysine, ornithineF (non-obligatory E)Ubiquitous except for liver and lacrimal gland/basolateral and intracellular membranes in epithelial cellsmTORC1 activityNM_003045
SLC7A2CAT-2System y+Arginine, lysine, ornithineFCAT-2A: liver, skeletal muscle, pancreas; CAT-2B: inducible in many cell typesNO production; NF-κB pathwayNM_003046 NM_001008539
SLC7A5LAT1System LGlutamine, leucine, methionine, tryptophanE (similar intra- and extracellular selectivities, lower intracellular apparent affinity)Brain, ovary, testis, placenta, spleen, colon, blood-brain barrier, fetal liver, activated lymphocytes, tumor cellsc-Myc expression; IFN-γ production and granzyme B expressionNM_003486
SLC7A7y+LAT1system y+LLysine, arginase, ornithine, methionine, leucineNa+ dependent transport of extracellular large neutral L-amino acidsSmall intestine, kidney, spleen, leukocytes, placenta, lung/basolateral in epithelial cellsNO production; NF-κB pathwayNM_003982
SLC7A11xCTsystem xc-Cystine, glutamateE (preferentially extracellular cystine against intracellular glutamate)Macrophages, brain, retinal pigment cells, liver, kidney/basolateral in epithelial cellsGlutathione production; ROS accumulation; mTOR and NFAT activity; glycolysis and glutaminolysisNM_014331
  • Akt, protein kinase B; ASCT, alanine serine cysteine transporter; C, cotransporter; E, exchanger; F, facilitated transporter.; IGF, Insulin-Like Growth Factor; NFAT, nuclear factor of activated T cells; NKG2D, natural killer group 2, member D; xCT, Solute Carrier Family 7 Member 11; xc-, cystine/glutamate antiporter.